In Marin General Hospital v. Modesto & Empire Traction Co., 581 F.3d 941 (9th Cir. 2009), the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals held that section 502(a)(1)(B) of ERISA did not completely preempt state-law causes of actions for breach of contract, negligent misrepresentation, quantum meruit and estoppel brought by a hospital against a patient’s employer and its claims administrator based on an alleged oral agreement between the hospital and claims administrator to pay for services provided by the hospital. Because the claims could not be pursued under section 502(a)(1)(B), the Ninth Circuit concluded that the state-law claims were not preempted, depriving the court of subject matter jurisdiction. Accordingly, removal from state court was improper and the case was remanded to the district court with instructions to remand the matter to state court.
Marin General Hospital (“Hospital”) contended that its representative spoke to a representative of Medical Benefits Administrators of M.D. Inc. (“Medical Benefits”) on April 8, 2004 to confirm that a prospective patient had health insurance through a plan provided by his employer, Modesto & Empire Traction Co., and administered by Medical Benefits. The Hospital contended that the Medical Benefits representative verbally verified the patient’s coverage, authorized treatment, and agreed to cover ninety-percent of the patient’s medical expenses. The Hospital sued Medical Benefits and Modesto & Empire in state court and the defendants successfully removed the case to the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, claiming that ERISA completely preempted the claims. The district court subsequently dismissed the Hospital’s complaint, concluding that the only remedy available was under ERISA § 502(a)(1)(B).
The Ninth Circuit first found the parties “have not clearly understood the difference between complete preemption under ERISA § 502(a), 29 U.S.C. § 1132(a), and conflict preemption under ERISA § 514(a), 29 U.S.C. § 1144(a).” Complete preemption under § 502(a) is a jurisdictional doctrine. A party seeking removal based on federal question jurisdiction must show either that the state-law causes of action are completely preempted by § 502(a) of ERISA, or that some other basis exists.
The court then explained that removal was only proper if the Hospital’s state law claims were completely preempted under section 502(a)(1)(B) of ERISA. It then examined whether the claims asserted by the Hospital were completely preempted by ERISA, concluding that they were not. In reaching this conclusion, the Ninth Circuit clarified a distinction between complete preemption under section 502(a) and conflict preemption under section 514(a). Citing to Franciscan Skemp Healthcare, Inc. v. Central States Joint Board Health & Welfare Trust Fund, 538 F.3d 594, 596 (7th Cir. 2008), the Ninth Circuit explained that complete preemption under section 502(a) is “really a jurisdictional rather than a preemption doctrine, [as it] confers exclusive federal jurisdiction in certain instances where Congress intended the scope of a federal law to be so broad as to entirely replace any state-law claims.” In contrast, the “rule is that a defense of federal preemption of state-law claims, even conflict preemption under section 514(a) of ERISA, is an insufficient basis for original federal question jurisdiction.”
Relying on Aetna Health Inc. v. Davila, 542 U.S. 200, 210 (2004), the Ninth Circuit explained that a state-law cause of action is completely preempted by section 502(a)(1)(B) if: (1) “an individual, at some point in time, could have brought [the] claim under ERISA section 502(a)(1)(B);” and (2) “where there is no other independent legal duty that is implicated by a defendant’s actions.” Based on this conjunctive two-prong test, the Ninth Circuit concluded that the Hospital’s state-law claims were not pre-empted.